Although I've been interested in Covina history for decades now, I still get confused sometimes about what happened when. So, I finally decided to make a list of as many significant events as I could think of, and put them all in chronological order. I must say, I wish I'd done this a long time ago! It makes things much easier to understand and remember.
Most of the information presented here was gleaned from Donald H. Pflueger's "Covina: Sunflowers, Citrus, Subdivisions," Castle Press, Pasadena, 1964; Dr. Barbara Ann Hall's "Images of America: Covina," Arcadia Publishing, 2007; the West Covina Historical Milestones webpage; and online communications with fellow Covina-area historians Glenn Reed, Tom Armbruster and Jim Harris. Please bear in mind: this timeline is still a work-in-progress. Corrections, additions, and their supporting documentation are welcomed.
September 8, 1771 – European settlement of what will become Los Angeles County commences with the founding of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in the province of Las Californias in New Spain. First built on the bank of the Rio Hondo near today's Whittier Narrows, the mission moves to its present location after a flood in 1776.
November 25, 1826 – Jedediah Smith is the first U.S. citizen to venture into the valley of the San Gabriel. His party camps at Mud Springs, located in today's San Dimas, just south of the intersection of Bonita and Walnut Avenues.
March, 1842 – Alta California Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado grants Rancho La Puente to American-born Mexican citizen John A. Rowland. The grant holdings comprise 76 square miles of prime range land east of the San Gabriel River and south of the San Bernardino stagecoach road.
February 2, 1848 – The war ends with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which cedes Alta California to the United States. Under its terms, Rowland and Workman retain ownership of Rancho La Puente, and Rowland regains his U.S. citizenship.
September 9, 1850 – California becomes the 31st State in the Union.
1854 – The first orange trees are planted in Rancho La Puente.
1858 – The U.S. Government declares most of British Crown subject Henry Dalton's Rancho Azusa to be public land. During the following two decades, hundreds of American squatters/homesteaders will move into the area which today comprises the cities of Baldwin Park, Glendora, Irwindale, and the northern half of Covina.
1863-1864 – A severe drought decimates the region's cattle industry, and the ranchos of Los Angeles County turn increasingly to agriculture and land sales to survive.
1865 – The first general store and post office in the Azusa Valley is built at "Four Corners" ("Las Cuatro Esquinas"), on the north side of the San Bernardino stagecoach road where it intersected the Azusa Cañon road, just west of today's Orange Avenue. Orange trees are also planted there.
1868 – Rowland and Workman agree to partition Rancho La Puente; Rowland becomes the sole owner of the land which will later become Covina.
c.1870 – A community center, Grange Hall, is erected on the south side of the San Bernardino stage road just west of today's Vincent Avenue. The gathering place is also used for church services and a school.
October 13, 1873 – "Don Juan" Rowland dies.
1876 – The Southern Pacific Railroad reaches Los Angeles. Its right-of-way does pass through Rancho La Puente, but to the south of the San Jose Hills, bypassing the Azusa Valley.
September 2, 1876 – Costa Ricans José Julián Badilla and Pedro Maria Badilla purchase 5,563 acres of Rancho La Puente from widow Charlotte Rowland for $45,000, where they intend to start a coffee plantation. The Badilla brothers subsequently build two frame houses on the San Bernardino stagecoach road at the southwest corner of its intersection with today's Hollenbeck Avenue.
Fall, 1876 – Lower Azusa School – the first dedicated schoolhouse in what will become the Covina area – opens for classes at the southwest corner of Cypress Avenue and Azusa Street (now Lark Ellen Avenue).
1877 – Eugene C. Griswold builds a general store and meeting hall at the northeast corner of today's Citrus Avenue and Cypress Avenue, which also becomes the Covina area's first post office. Griswold's pioneer settlement is named "Citrus." The store closes in 1879, but Griswold's Hall remains the local post office until 1886.
1879 – The Badilla coffee plantation fails. John E. Hollenbeck buys the Badilla lands for $16,692.
1880s – The cultivation of wheat, barley, and grapes dominates agriculture in Rancho La Puente.
1882 – Joseph Swift Phillips (b.1840) buys a 2,000-acre portion of the former Badilla lands south of the San Bernardino road from J. E. Hollenbeck for $30,000. Phillips and his family take up residence in the Julián Badilla house.
1883 – Future Los Angeles mayor Frederick Eaton begins surveying the 2,000-acre Phillips Tract, and names the tract's townsite "Covina." Eaton also names one of the main streets "Badillo," misspelling the land's previous owners' surname.
December, 1883 – Covina's first schoolhouse – the Phillips School – opens at the southeast corner of San Bernardino Road and Citrus Avenue.
Early 1884 – Joseph Moxley buys the first parcel of land in the Phillips Tract – 20 acres at the southwest corner of San Bernardino Road and Barranca Street – and builds the tract's first residence.
December 12, 1884 – Newspaperman H. N. Short and associate J. R. Conlee arrive in Covina to start The Covina Independent, and soon after erect the new townsite's first structure – their print shop – at the southwest corner of Citrus and Badillo.
December 24, 1884 – The Covina Social Club opens a community center on East Badillo Street, appropriately named Covina Hall. It also serves as the town's first church.
January, 1885 – The Phillips Tract officially opens for land sales, The Covina Independent publishes its first edition, and Covina's first general store is built by F. E. Grover at the northeast corner of Citrus and Badillo. A blacksmith shop, butcher shop, and grocery soon follow.
1885 – Samuel Allison builds the first residence in the Covina townsite at 160 West Badillo Street. Newspaper editor Conlee's house goes up soon after at 202 West College Street.
1886 – Thomas Sanderson Ruddock builds the Azusa Valley's first mansion – Mountain View – on former Badilla/Hollenbeck lands to the immediate east of the Phillips Tract. On the 120-acre estate are planted 9,000 orange and 3,000 lemon trees.
Fall, 1886 – J. R. Hodges builds Covina's first permanent structure out of concrete on the south side of Badillo Street east of the Pioneer Blacksmith Shop.
1887 – Covina's first telephone is installed in Hodges' "Concrete Block."
c.1888 – Dr. A. B. Hostetler becomes Covina's first resident physician.
Early 1890s – Large orchards of deciduous and citrus fruit trees begin replacing the grain fields and grape orchards of the Eighties.
1891 – The Citrus Union High School District is formed to jointly serve the communities of Azusa, Covina and Glendora. Citrus Union's first classes are held that September in an abandoned hotel in the defunct settlement of "Gladstone" north of Covina.
August, 1893 – Area orange growers form the Azusa-Covina-Glendora Citrus Association. Several small packing houses are opened along the Santa Fe rail line through Azusa and Glendora. Lemon growers form a similar association in 1895.
1894 – Two new Grammar Schools are constructed in Covina: one on Citrus at San Bernardino Road, and the Lark Ellen School, which replaces the old Lower Azusa School on Cypress Avenue. Charter Oak also opens its own schoolhouse at the southwest corner of Bonnie Cove and Cienega Avenues.
Late 1890s – Citrus cultivation steadily grows to become the dominant form of agriculture in the Covina area.
1895 – The Pomona Road (today's Covina Hills Road) is completed over the eastern San Jose Hills, and Azusa Avenue becomes the first paved street in the Phillips Tract.
September 9, 1895 – Service begins on the new spur line of the Southern Pacific Railroad through Covina.
October 10, 1895 – The town's first bank opens: a Covina branch of the Azusa Valley Bank.
October 14, 1895 – The Covina Citrus Association is incorporated.
December, 1895 – The Houser Bros. packing house – Covina's first large-scale citrus processing operation – is erected alongside the new Southern Pacific rail line.
1896 – The Covina City School District is formed.
1896-c.1946 – With its own citrus industry, rail transportation links, schools and financial institutions now established, Covina's future is assured, and its first boom begins. The "Era of Citrus" will span the next half-century.
1897 – The Chapman-Workman Building goes up at the northwest corner of Citrus and Badillo.
Spring, 1897 – The Covina Reading Room and Library Association is formed. The first donation comprises 50 books.
April, 1898 – Local investors headed by C. H. Ruddock buy the Covina branch of the Azusa Valley Bank and re-name it the Covina Valley Bank. In 1901, it becomes the First National Bank of Covina.
September 21, 1898 – Seventeen ladies gather in the home of Mrs. J. J. Morgan and organize the Monday Afternoon Club, which in 1925 incorporates as the Covina Woman's Club.
1899, 1901 – The headquarters of the First National Bank of Covina is constructed in stages at the northwest corner of Citrus and College.
1899 – Covina opens its own high school on the second floor of the newly-expanded 1894 Grammar School. Lillian Harris is the first graduate of Covina High in Spring, 1900.
1900 – The Reed Block is erected at the northeast corner of Citrus and Badillo.
August 11, 1900 – Covina's first hotel – The Vendome – opens at the northwest corner of Citrus and Cottage Drive.
January 21, 1901 – The 20th century officially dawns in Covina with the arrival of electricity and electric lights.
August 6, 1901 – Covina becomes an incorporated city.
September, 1902 – The Covina Home Telephone Company is formed. By mid-1903, almost a hundred homes and businesses are connected to the network, and in October, 1903, long distance service to Los Angeles becomes available.
1902-1903 – Fifty electric street lights are installed in town. Forty-one more are added in 1908.
January 5, 1903 – Classes begin in the new Covina High School building, located behind the Grammar School and facing San Bernardino Road.
November 4, 1903 – The C. W. Tucker photographic studio opens for business.
November 5, 1903 – The first spike is driven for the Pacific Electric Railroad trolley line along Badillo Street. (Full interurban service in the P.E. network would not begin until June 5, 1907, however.)
1904-05 – Flood-prone Walnut Creek is channelized from Azusa Avenue west to the San Gabriel River, and Lucky Baldwin's 4th Subdivision in Rancho La Puente lays out the grid of streets of what will later become West Covina.
October 28, 1905 – Covina founder Joseph Phillips dies.
December 4, 1905 – Dedication of the new Carnegie Library at the southeast corner of Second Street and Italia Street.
1909 – Warner & Whitsel open their new two-storey brick grocery store on Citrus Avenue. The building is known to later generations of Covinans as Custer's.
March 1, 1909 – The rancho period ends upon the death of Lucky Baldwin.
March 30, 1909 – Dedication of the new Covina Union High School building at the northwest corner of Citrus and Puente.
August 7, 1909 – Covina Argus editor J. L. Matthews encourages adoption of the name "West Covina" for the farming community to the south and west of the city. (Other names used for the area had been "Pumpkin Center" and "Walnut Center.")
September, 1910 – West Covina opens its own schoolhouse near today's Sunset and Cameron Avenues. Eleven students are enrolled at Irwindale School in its first year.
1915 – The new San Jose Hills Road (today's South Grand Avenue) gives Covinans a much more direct route to the Walnut Valley and on to Orange County.
1915-1917 – The San Gabriel Grand Lodge of the Masonic Order obtains 55 acres on East Badillo Street in Charter Oak to build its new home for indigent children. The Masonic Home is dedicated in 1917.
April, 1916 – The street clock in front of the Finch Brothers Jewelry Store on Citrus Avenue is installed. In 1925, it is upgraded to run on electricity.
1919 – The fourth and last Covina Grammar School is constructed at Citrus and San Bernardino. The old high school building is moved to the southwest corner of Second and School Streets, and is dedicated as the Covina Masonic Lodge that same year.
May, 1921 – Ten acres of the Adams Tract west of Fourth Street are acquired for the development of Covina Park. The plunge opens two years later.
March, 1922 – Mrs. F. E. Wolfrath wins a Chamber of Commerce prize for her suggestion for a new city motto: "One Mile Square and All There." (However, the slogan actually used by the C-of-C was "A Mile Square...")
Summer, 1922 – Graduate nurses Melisse Wittler and Lavinia Graham open the city's first hospital in the former Charles E. Bemis home at the northwest corner of Badillo and Second. Soon after, sister Mary Wittler joins the partnership.
February 23, 1923 – The residents of West Covina vote in favor of incorporation. Two days later, it is officially declared a city by the County Board of Supervisors.
1924 – Covina Hospital moves to a new facility at 275 West College Street. That same year, The Magan Clinic (founded in 1919) opens at 155 West College Street.
January 30, 1930 – Dedication of the new City Hall on East College Street.
1935 – Four-lane Garvey Boulevard (U.S. Highway 99) is completed through the eastern San Gabriel Valley and over Kellogg Hill to Pomona.
May, 1939 – The new United States Post Office is opened at the southwest corner of College and Second.
1945-1946 – The "quick decline" virus spreads through the orange groves, killing thousands of trees. The devastating blight heralds the beginning of the end of Covina's Era of Citrus.
1945-1955 – High demand for new suburban housing after World War II results in a shifting of the local economy from agriculture to residential real estate and construction, ushering in Covina's second boom.
1946 – The Wittler sisters agree to sell Covina Hospital to a group of 200 local citizens. The sale and expansion are completed in 1948, and the institution is renamed Covina Inter-Community Hospital.
March 28, 1947 – Citing competition from private automobiles, Pacific Electric ends its trolley service to Covina.
August 1, 1952 – The first stores of West Covina Center are opened on Garvey Boulevard just west of Glendora Avenue.
1953 – The Covina Grammar School on Citrus is closed, and in 1955, the building is sold to Aetron: a division of Aerojet-General Corporation.
1954-55 – Construction of Shoppers Lane at the southeast corner of Citrus and Rowland.
1955-56 – Construction of the original West Covina Plaza shopping center on Garvey Boulevard west of Vincent.
1956 – Covina High School moves to a new campus on Hollenbeck, and West Covina High School moves into the old Covina Union High School buildings until its own new campus opens for classes in 1957. Edgewood High School is the last to occupy the grounds during the 1958-1959 school year.
1956-57 – The San Bernardino Freeway (Interstate 10) is extended through the West Covina area, and is completed on April 26, 1957.
October 24-26, 1957 – The Eastland Shopping Center opens, becoming the sixth modern mall in the Southland and the first to be built adjacent to a freeway.
1959 – Classes begin at the new Northview High School at Azusa Avenue and Cypress, and at Charter Oak High School on East Covina Boulevard.
c.1960 – Suburban homes now vastly outnumber orange groves. Covina's Era of Citrus has ended.
1961 – The abandoned Covina Union High School's main building on Citrus is gutted in an arson fire, and is subsequently razed.
1962 – The historic Badilla/Phillips house at San Bernardino Road and Hollenbeck is burned down in a fire department training exercise.
1963 – The present Covina Public Library is constructed on the site of the old Carnegie Library on Second Street.
1964 – Classes begin at the new South Hills High School at Barranca and Cameron in West Covina.
October 1, 1967 – The Magan Clinic opens its new main office on Rowland just east of Hollenbeck.
1969 – The former Covina Grammar School/Aetron building is razed to clear the site for a proposed new Civic Center, which is never built.
1986 – Covina celebrates the centennial of its founding.
May, 1992 – George H. W. Bush is the first sitting President of the United States to visit Covina. He addresses a campaign rally in Covina Park.
2001 – Covina celebrates its centennial as an incorporated city.